Catena & Thermography
Catena & Thermography
Catena & Thermography
"Treethermography® since 1984"
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Thermal cameras sense the infrared radiation emitted by all objects with temperature above the absolute zero, and reveal the thermal distribution on their surfaces, thus letting us "see" the thermal energy that would be otherwise invisible. Thermography proves useful when a thermal pattern helps detect something (an unconscious person in a place full of smoke) or spot an abnormal or dangerous situation (water leaks under the floor, damaged lining of industrial furnaces) or the condition of the object under exam (faulty electrical wirings).

Thermography is used in the most diverse civil and industrial sectors: from preventive maintenance to the detection of damage, leaks, malfunctioning plants, apparatuses or services; its applications range from restoration of artworks or buildings to non destructive testing (NDT), heat losses (with a view to energy saving) and tree assessment. 

Measurements are conducted by pointing the apparatus to the area of interest and focusing, if necessary: the apparatus automatically produces a thermal image (TI) according to the maximum and minimum temperatures present in the scene and the pre-set colour palette, in only a fraction of a second. If the TI is not satisfactory, i.e. the object concerned is not well detailed, a different temperature range or colour palette can be selected among those available (to learn the various operational modes, see the User Guides of the various apparatuses). 

Thermograms or Thermal Images

Investigations are conducted with thermal cameras which measure the thermal energy emitted by bodies from a distance and produce thermograms or thermal images (TI) of the scene on the camera screen. Thermal images can be viewed in black and white or pseudo-colours, according to the selected pre-set palettes and stored on a memory card, so that they can be downloaded and processed on a PC equipped with a proprietary software, necessary to reconstruct the image of a whole tree. Thanks to a temperature scale attached to every image, colours (or grey shades) indicate the temperatures present in the image, so that every temperature corresponds to a precise colour (or grey shade) according to a selected colour palette. In this way, the same colour or grey shade on the thermogram (TI) corresponds to the same temperature.
 

The surface temperature distribution is thus "readable" also on huge surfaces and at a glance. Besides having a real-time "thermal map" with colour-temperature matching, it is possible to add cursors to digitally view the temperature. A thermal image (TI) can be considered an actual "thermal map" of the body under study, because it does not only show surface temperature distribution, but is the result of the health conditions of the tree and the presence or absence of decay within it. In fact, the experience gathered in various sectors confirmed that if there are no discontinuities or internal decay, the surface temperature distribution and colour (grey shade) are uniform. An abnormal surface temperature distribution in the body under study (abnormal distribution of colour or grey shades) points out a defect within the body. This surface temperature difference between healthy and damaged areas depends on their different thermal conductivity. In trees, the area covering decay or a cavity has a lower temperature than surrounding healthy areas. 


Despite its ease of use, Thermography is not a "point and assess" system: besides knowing the body or object under study, operators have to know and be able to detect the most common external causes of noise. That is why, a guided training is necessary to correctly and independently work. 

Uses of Thermography 

Thermography can detect faults in metal casting, walls, roofs or sheet insulation, as well as decay/cavities in trees (trunk, branches and roots), while highlighting their residual healthy tissue, and revealing their health and vitality conditions (Treethermography® - TTH).  As a Remote Sensing system, a thermal camera can be flown on low-flying helicopters for naturalistic purposes, i.e. to manage the fauna in woodlands, and for environmental purposes, to detect effluents in water bodies and assess the management of sanitary landfills, the quality of bathing waters or the presence of algal blooms, etc. Thermal cameras can be used from the ground to study bats, that are difficult to detect because of their nightly habits to occupy tree cavities.
   
Heat Loss

Heat Loss

Heat Loss

Restoration of Manufacts, Bronze Table Support Ostia Antica (Rome), I Century A.C.

Restoration of Manufacts, Bronze Table Support Ostia Antica (Rome), I Century A.C.

Algal Bloom Detection

Algal Bloom Detection


33, Via Peveragno - 00166 Rome - Italy Tel/Fax +39(0)6 6637187 Mob: +39 340 7016037 
E-mail: giorgio.catena@treethermography.it

Skype address "gioca2010"

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